Pliny the Elder

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The Preface or Epistle Dedicatorie to Prince Vespasian1, his [freind]
C. Plinius Secundus sendeth greeting.

These books containing the Historie of Nature, which a few daies since I brought to light (a new work in Latin, and namely among the Romanes, your citizens and countrimen) I purpose by this Epistle of mine to present and consecrate unto you, most sweet and gentle Prince [for this title accordeth fittest unto you, seeing that the name of [Most mightie] sorteth well with the age of that Emperor your father:] which haply might seeme boldnesse and presumption in me, but that I know how at other times you were wont to have some good opinion of my toies and fooleries. Where, by the way, you must give me leave to mollifie a little the verses which I borrow of my countriman Catullus. (See also how I light upon a word used among soldiors, which you are acquainted with, since time we served both together in the camp:) For he as you wot full well, changing the former sillables of his verses one for another, made himselfe somewhat more harsh than he would seeme to be unto the fine ears of his familiar friends, the Veranioli & Fabulli. And withall, I would be thought by this my malapart writing unto you, to satisfie one point, which, as you complained in your answer of late to another rude & audacious letter of mine, I had not performed, to wit, That all the world might see (as it were upon record) how the Empire is managed by you and your father equally: and notwithstanding this imperiall maiestie wherunto you are called, yet is your affabilitie and maner of conversing with your old friends, fellow-like, & the same that alwaies heretofore it had been. For albeit you have triumphed with him for your noble victories, ben Censor in your time, and Consull six times, executed the sacred authoritie of the Tribunes, patrones, and protectors of the Commons of Rome, together with him; albeit I say you have otherwise shewed your noble heart in honouring and gracing both the court of the Emperor your father, and also the whole state of Knights and Gentlemen of Rome, whiles you were captaine of the guard, and Grand master of his house and roiall pallace (in which places all, you carried your selfe respectively to the good of the Commonweale) yet to all your friends, and especially to my selfe, you have borne the same colours, and lodged together in one pavilion. So as in all this greatnesse and high estate whereunto you are mounted, there is no other change and alteration seen in your person but this, That your power is now answerable to your will, & able you are to do and performe that good which you ever meant, and still intend.

And howsoever this great maiestie, resplendent in you on every side, in regard of those high dignities above rehearsed, may induce the whole world besides to reverence your person in all obeisance, yet I for my part am armed onely with a kind of audacitie and confidence to shew my dutie and devoire unto you, after a more familiar manner than others: and therfore, this my adventurous rashnes, whatsoever, you must impute unto your own courtesie; and if I chaunce to fault therein, thanke your selfe therefore, and seeke pardon at your own hands. Well, bashfulnesse I have laid aside, and put on a bold face, and all to no purpose. For why? although your gentlenesse and humanitie be one way attractive and induceth me to draw neare unto your presence, yet another way you appear in great maiestie: the sublimitie I say of your mind, your deepe reach, high conceit, and rare perfections, set me as far back: no lictors & huishers marching before you, so much, that I dare not approch. In the first place: Was there ever any man, whose words passed from him more powerfull, & who more truly might be said to flash forth as lightning the force of eloquence? What Tribune was there known at any time to persuade & move the people with good language, more effectually? How admirable was your utterance in those publick Orations, wherin you thundered out the praise-worthie acts of the Emperor your father, that all the grand-place rung therwith? What a singular testimonie he shewed you of rare kindnesse & affection to your brother, in setting out his praises to the full? as for your skill in Poetrie, how excellent, how accomplished is it. Oh the bountie of your mind! Oh the fertilitie of your pregnant spirit! that you should find means to imitat, yea and to match your brother   in that kind. But who is able boldly to give an estimat of these gifts to their worth? How may a man enter into the due consideration therof, without feare of the exquisit censure and exact iudgement of your wit, especially being provoked and challenged therunto as you are. For to say a truth, the ease of them who publish a worke in generall tearmes, is far unlike to theirs that will seeme to dedicat it particularly, and by name, to a prince so iudicious as your selfe. For had I set forth this my booke simply, & staied there without any personall dedication, the[n] I might have come upon you and said, Sir, what should a mightie Commander and Generall of the field as you are, busie himselfe to read such matters? written these treatises were to the capacitie of the vulgar people, for base commons, rude husbandmen, and peasants of the countrie, for poor artisans, and in one word, to gratifie them who had no other means of great emploiment, nor time & leasure but to studie upon such points and nothing els: What should you make your selfe a censor of this worke? And verely, when I made first shew of this enterprise of mine, I never reckned you in the number of those iudges that should passe their sentence upon these writings; I wist full well that you were a greater person far, & I supposed that you would never abase your selfe nor stoupe so low as to read this book of mine. Over and besides, a common case it is, and incident to men of deepe learning and great conceit, that otherwhiles exception may be taken against them, and their iudgement reiected in this behalfe. Even M. Tullius that renoumed Orator, and who for wit and learning had not his fellow, taking the vantage of that libertie, useth the benefit therof: and (whereat we may well marvell) maintaineth the action by an advocat, and taketh example (for his defence) from Lucilius: for in one part of his workes thus hee saith, I would not have learned Persius to read these bookes of mine, loth I am that he should censure me. As for Lælius Decimus, I am content to submit them to his opinion. Now if such an one as Lucilius, who was the first that durst controule the writings of others, and tooke upon him to scoffe at their imperfections, had reason thus to say; if Cicero took occasion to borrow the said speech of him for to serve his own turne, and namely in his Treatise of Politiques, where he wrote of a Commonweale, how much greater cause have I to distrust my selfe, and to decline & avoid the censure of some iudge of deepe understanding? But cut I am from this refuge and meanes of defence, in that I expressely make choise of you in this dedication of my worke: for one thing it is to have a iudge, either pricked by pluralitie of voices, or cast upon a man by drawing lots; and a farre other thing to chuse and nominat him from all others: and great difference is there betweene that cheare and provision which we make for a guest solemnely bidden and invited, and the suddaine fare and intertainement which is readie for a stranger who commeth to our house unlooked for. Cato, that professed enemie of ambition, vainglorie, and indirect suit for offices, who took as great contentment in those estates and dignities which he refused and reiected, as in them which he enioied, attained to this good name of uprightnesse and synceritie, that when in the hotest broile about election of Magistrats that ever was in his time, they that stood therfore, put into this hands their mony upon trust, as a cautionarie pawne and assurance of their integritie and fidelitie that way; they professed that they did it in testimonie of their conceit of his equitie and innocence, the cheefe and onely thing that a man is to regard in this life: wherupon ensued that noble and memorable and exclamation of M. Cicero, who speaking of the said Cato, brake out into these words: Oh gentle M. Portius, how happie and blessed art thou, whom no man was ever so hardie as to sollicite to any leaud thing, or contrary to right and honestie! L. Scipio, surnamed Asiaticus, at what time as he appealed unto the Tribunes of the Commons, and besought their lawfull favour (among whome, C. Gracchus was one, a man whom he tooke for his mortall enemie) presuming upon the goodnesse of his cause, gave out and said, That his verie enemies, if they were his iudges, could not chuse but quit him and give sentence on his side. Thus wee see how everie man maketh him peremptorily the supreme and highest iudge of his cause, whom himselfe chuseth and appealeth unto: which manner of choise the Latines call Provocatio. As for your selfe verely, who are set in the most eminent & cheefe place among men, & otherwise endued with singular eloquence and profound knowledge, no marvell is it, if those that doe their dutie unto you, salute you, kisse your hand, and come with great respect and reverence: In which regard, exceeding care above all things would be had, that whatsoever is said or dedicated unto you, may beseem your person, & be worth acceptation. And yet the gods reiect not the humble praiers of poore countrey peasants, yea, and of manie nations, who offer nothing but milke unto them: and such as have no Incense, find grace and favour manie times with the oblation of a plaine cake made onely of meale and salt; and never was anie man blamed yet for his devotion to the gods, so he offered according to his abilite, were the thing never so simple.

For mine own part, challenged I may be more still for this my importune and inconsiderat boldnesse, in that I would seeme to present these bookes unto you, compiled of so slender stuffe & matter as they be: for therin can be couched no great wit (which otherwise in me was ever mean and simple) neither admit they any digressions, orations, speeches, and discourses, ne yet admirable cases & variable chaunces, nor any other occurrent, either pleasant to rehearse, or delectable to hear. The truth is, the nature of all things in this world, that is to say, matters concerning our daily and ordinary life, are here deciphered & declared, and that in barrain tearms, without any goodly shew of gay and glorious phrases: and whatsoever I have put down, concerne it doth the basest points therof, insomuch as for the most part I am to deliver the thing in hand, either in rusticall speech, or els in forrain, nay, in barbarous language, such also as may not well be uttered, but with reserving honour to the hearers, and reverence to the readers.

Moreover, the way that I have entred into, hath not ben troden beforetime by other writers, being indeed so strange & uncouth, as a mans mind would not willingly travell therin. No Latin author among us hath hitherto once ventured upon the same argument, no one Grecian whatsoever hath gone through it and handled all: and no marvell, for many of us love not to take any pains, but study rather to pen matters of delight and pleasure. True it is, I must needs say, that others have made profession hereof, but they have done it with such subtiltie and deepnesse, that all their travels and writings by that means, lie as it were dead and buried in darknesse. Now come I, & take upon me to speake of every thing, and to gather as it weere a compleat body of arts and sciences (which the Greeks call ejgkuklapaideivoV) that are either altogether unknown or become doubtful, through the overmuch curiositie of fine wits: again, other matters are deciphered in such long discourses, that they are tedious to the readers, insomuch as they loath and abhor them. A difficult enterprise it is therfore to make old stuffe new, to give authoritie & credit to novelties, to polish and smooth that which is worne and out of use, to set a glosse & lustre upon that which is dim and dark, to grace & countenance things disdained, to procure beleef to matters doubtfull, & in one word, to reduce nature to all, and all to their own nature. And verely to give the attempt only & shew a desire to effect such a desseigne as this, although the same be not brought about and compassed, were a brave and magnificent enterprise. Certes of this spirit am I, that those learned men & great students, who making no stay but breaking through all difficulties, have preferred the profit of posterity before the tickling and pleasure of itching ears in these daies; which I may protest that I have aimed at, not in this worke only, but also in other of my books alreadie: and I professe, that I wonder much at T. Livius, otherwise a most renowned & famous writer, who in a preface to one of his books of the Roman historie which he cõpiled from the foundation of Rome, thus protested, That he had gotten glorie ynough by his former writing, and might sit still now & take his ease, but that his mind was so restlesse and so ill could abide repose, that contrariwise it was fed and nourished with travell & nothing els. But surely me thinks, in finishing those Chronicles, he should in dutie have respected the glory of that people which had conquered the world and advanced the honour of the Romane name, rather than displaied his owne praise and commendation: Ywis, his demerit had been the greater, to have continued his storie as he did, for love of the subject matter, and not for his privat pleasure; to have I say performed that peece of work more to gratifie the state of Rome, than to content his owne mind and afffection. As touching my selfe (forasmuch as Domitius Piso saith, That bookes ought to be treasuries    & store-houses indeed, and not bare & simple writings) I may be bold to say and averr, That in 36 Books I have comprised 20000 things, all worthie of regard & consideration, which I have collected out of 2000 volumes or therabout, that I have diligently read (and yet verie few of them there be that men learned otherwise, and studious, dare meddle withall, for the deepe matter and hidden secrets therein contained) and those written by 100 severall elect and approved authors: besides a world of other matters, which either were unknown to our forefathers and former writers, or els afterwards invented by their posteritie. And yet I nothing doubt but many things there be, which either surpasse our knowledge, or els our memorie hath overslipt: for men we are, & men emploied in many affairs. Moreover, considered it would be, that these studies we follow at vacant times and stolne hours, that is to say, by night season onely; to the end that you may know, how wee to accomplish this, have neglected no time which was due unto your service: The daies wholly employ & spend in attendance upon your person; we sleepe only to satisfie nature, even as much as our health requireth, and no more; contenting our selves with this reward, That whiles we studie and muse (as Varro saith) upon these things in our closet, we gaine so many hours to our life; for surely we live then onely, when wee watch and be awake. Considering now those occasions, those lets and hinderances above-named, I had no reason to presume or promise much; but in that you have emboldened me to dedicat my books unto you, your selfe perfourmeth whatsoever in me is wanting: not that I trust upon the goodnesse and worth of the worke, so much, as that by this means it will be better esteemed and shew more vendible: for many things there be that seeme right deare & be holden for pretious, only because they are consecrated to some sacred temples.

As for us verely, we have written of you all, your father Vespasian, your selfe, and your brother Domitian, in a large volume which we compiled touching the historie of our times, beginning there where Aufidius Bassus ended. Now if you demand & aske me, Where that historie is? I answer, That finished it was long since, and by this time is iustified and approved true by your deeds: otherwise I was determined to leave it unto my heire, & give order that it should be published after my death, least in my life time I might have ben thought to have curried favor of those, whose acts I seemed to pen with flatterie, & beyond all truth. And therfore in this action I do both them a great favour who haply were minded before me to put forth the like Chronicle, and the posteritie also which shall come after; who, I make reckning & know, will enter into the lists with us, like as we have done with our predecessors. A sufficient argument of this my good mind & frank hart that way you shal have by this, That in the front of these books now in hand, I have set down the verie names of those writers, whose help I have used in tthe compiling of the[m]: for I have ever ben of this opinion, That it is the part of an honest minded ma[n] & one that is full grace & modesty, to confesse frankly by whõ he hath profited & gotten any good: not as many of those unthankful persons have done, whõ I have alledged for my authors. For to tell you a plaine truth, know thus much frõ me, that in cõferring the[m] togither about this work of mine, I have met with some of our modern writers, who word for word have exe[m]plified & copied out whole books of old authors, & never vouchsafed so much as the naming of them, but have taken their labors & travels to themselves. And this they have not done in that courage and spirit to imitate, yea and to match them as Virgil did Homer: much lesse have tthey shewed that simplicitie & apert proceeding of Cicero, who in his books of Pollicie and Common-weale professeth himselfe to hold with Plato; in his Consolatorie Epistle written to his daughter, confesseth and saith plainly thus, I follow Crantor, & Panætius likewise in his Treatise concerning Offices. Which worthie monuments of his (as you know well) deserve not onely to be seene, handled, and read daily, but also to be learned by heart everie word. Certes, I hold it for a point of a base and servile mind, and wherein there is no goodnesse at all, to chuse rather to be surprised and taken in theft, than to bring home borrowed good, or to repay a due debt, especially when the occupying, use, and interest thereof, hath gained a man as much as the principall.

Now as touching the titles and inscriptions of Bookes, the Greeks therein have a woonderfull grace and great felicitie: some have entituled them Khrivon, whereby they would give us to understand of A swet hony-combe:   others KhvraV AmalqeivV   that is to say, The horne of plentie and store: in such sort, that whosoever readeth these goodly titles, must needs hope for some great matters in such books, and as the proverb goeth, looke to drinke there or els no where, a good draught of hens milke. You shall have moreover their books set out with these glorious inscriptions, The Muses, The Pandects, Enchiridion, Leimw;n, Pinakivdion: Goodly names all, & such, as who would not make default of appearance in court, and forfeit a recognisance or obligation, to unclaspe such books and turne over the leafe? But let a man enter into them and read forward, Lord! how little or no substance at all shall he find within the verie minds, answerable to that brave shew in the front or outside thereof? As for our countreymen (Latines I meane and Romans) they be nothing so fine and curious as the Greeks, grosse are they in comparison of them in giving titles to their books: they come with their Antiquities, Examples, and Arts, and those also be such authors as are the most pleasant and of finest invention amongst them all. Valerius who (as I take it) was named Antias, both for that he was a citizen of Antium, and also because the auncestours of his house were so called, was the first that gave to a booke of his own making, the title of Lucubratio, as a man would say, Candle-worke or Night-Studie. Varro, he tearmeth some of his Satyres Sesculyxes and Flexibulæ. Diodorus among the Greeks was the first that laid aside toyish titles, and because he would give some grave name to his Chronicles, entituled it Bibliotheca, i. a Librarie. Apion the famous Grammarian, even he whome Tiberius Cæsar called the Cymball of the world (whereas indeed he deserved to be named a Timbrell or Drum rather for ringing and sounding publicke fame) was so vainglorious, that he supposed all those immortalized unto whom he wrote or composed any pamphlet whatsoever. For mine owne part, although I nothing repent me that I have devised no pretier Title for my Booke than plaine Naturalis Historia, i. The reports of Nature, without more ceremonie, yet because I would not be thought altogither to course and rate the Greeks, I can be content, nay I am willing to bee thought in this behalfe like unto those excellent grand-masters in Greece for Painting and Imagerie, whome you shall find in these Reports of mine, to have entituled those rare and absolute peeces of worke (which the more we view and looke upon, the more wee admire and wonder at for their perfection) with halfe titles and unperfect inscriptions, in this manner, Apelles went in hand with this Picture: or, Polycletus was a making this Image: as if they were but begun, never finished and laid out of their hands: which was done (no doubt) to this end, that for all the varietie and diversitie of mens iudgements scanning of their workemanship, yet the artificer thereby had recourse to make excuse; had means (I say) to crave and have pardon for any faults and imperfections that could be found; as if he meant to have amended any thing therein amisse or wanting, in case hee had not beeen cut off and prevented by death. These noble workemen therfore herein shewed right great modestie, that they set superscriptions upon all their painted tables, pourtraitures, and personages, as if they had been the last peeces of their workmanship, and themselves disabled by unexpected death that they could not make a finall end of any one of them: for there were not knowne (as I take it) above three in all, which had their absolute titles written upon them in this forme, Ille fecit, i. This Apelles wrought: & those Pictures will I write of in place convenient. By which it appeared evidently, that the said three tables were fully finished, and that the workeman was so highly contented with their perfection, that he feared the censure of no man: No marveile then, if all three were so much envied and admired throughout the world, no marveile if everie man desired to be master of them.

Now for my selfe, I know full well & confesse freely, that many more things may be added, not to this storie alone, but to all my books that I have put forth alreadie: which I speake by the way, because I would prevent and avoid those fault-finders abroad, those correctors and scourgers of Homer, (for surely that is their verie name) because I heare say there be certain Stoike Philosophers, professed Logicians, yea and Epicureans also (for at Grammarians hands and Criticks I never looked for other) who are with child still and travaile untill they be delivered of somewhat against my books which I have set forth as touching Grammer: and for this ten yeers space, nothing is come to light, but evermore the fruit miscarrieth belike before the full time, as the slip of an unperfect birth; whereas in lesse space than so, the verie Elephant bringeth foorth her calfe, be it never so big. But this troubleth me never a whit, for I am not ignorant that a silly woman, even a harlot and no better, durst encounter Theophrastus and write a booke against him, notwithstanding hee was a man of so incomparable eloquence that thereupon he came by his divine name Theophrastus: from whence arose this proverbe and by-word, Marie then go chuse a tree to hang thy selfe. And surely I cannot containe and hold my tongue, but I must needs set downe the verie words of Cato Censorius, so pertinent to this purpose; whereby it may appeare, that even Cato himselfe a most worthie personage, who wrote of militarie Discipline, who had been brought up and trained to feats of warre under Great Scipio Africanus, or rather indeed under Anniball, who in the end could not endure Africanus himselfe, but was able to controll him in martiall affaires: and who besides having the conduct as L. Generall of the Romane armie, atchieved the better hand over his enemies in the field, and returned with victory: this Cato (I say) could not avoid such backbiters and slaunderers, but knowing that there would bee many of them readie to purchase themselves some name and reputation by reproving the knowledge and skill of others, brake out into a certain speech against them: And what was it? I know right well (quoth he, in that booke aforesaid) that if these writings of mine come abroad once and be published to the view of the world, there will be many step foorth to quarrell and cavill therwith; such fellows soonest and most of all who are quite void of vertue and honestie, and know not what belongeth to true honour. But surely say what they will, I let their words run by, like raine water. It was a prettie speech also and a pleasant apothegme, that Plancus uttered in the semblable case: for beeing informed that Asinus Pollio was devising and framing certaine invective Orations against him, which should be set foorth either by himselfe or his children, after the decease of Plancus and not before, to the end that they might not be answered by him; hee said readily by way of a scoffe, That none but vaine bugs & hobgoblins use to fight with the dead: with which word he gave those orations such a counterbuffe, that (by the iudgement of the learned) none were accounted afterward more impudent and shamelesse than they. For mine own part, being sure that these busie bodies shall never be able to bite me (and verely Cato hath given such fellows a proper name, and called them Virilitgatores, by a tearme elegantly compounded of vices and quarrels: for to say a truth, what did they else but picke quarels and make brawls?) I will proceed and goe on still in my intended purpose.

Now to conclude and knit up mine Epistle: Knowing as I doe, that for the good of the Commonweale, you should be spared and not empeached by any privat business of your owne, and namely in perusing these long volumes of mine; to prevent this trouble therefore, I have adioyned immediatly to this Epistle and prefixed before these books, the Summarie or Contents of everie one: and verie carefully have I endeavoured, that you should not need to read them throughout, whereby all others also after your example, may ease themselves of the like labour: and as any man is desirous to know this or that, he may seeke and readily find in what place to meet with the same. This learned I of Valerius Sorranus one of our owne Latin writers, who hath done the like before me and set an Index to those Books which he entituled Epoptivdwn.


The Summarie of every Booke.

THe first Booke containeth the Dedicatorie Epistle or Preface of the worke, addressed to Titus Vespasian the Emperour. Also the names of the Authors out of which he gathered the Historie, which he prosecuteth in 36 Bookes: togither with the Summarie of every Chapter: & beginneth, The Books, &c.

The second, treateth of the World, Elements, and Starres, and beginneth thus, The world, &c.

The third, describeth the first and second gulfe, which the Mediterranean sea maketh in Europe: and beginneth in this manner, Hitherto, &c.

The fourth, compriseth the third gulfe of Europe, beginning, The third, &c.

The fift, containeth the description of Affrick, and beginneth thus, Africk, &c.

The sixt, handleth the Cosmographie of Asia, beginning thus, The sea called, &c.

The seventh treateth of man, and his inventions, beginning, Thus as you see, &

The eight sheweth unto us, land creatures, and their kinds, and beginneth after this manner, Passe we now, &c.

The ninth, laieth before us all fishes, and creatures of the water, beginning in this wise, I have thus showed, &c.

The tenth speakes of flying fouls and birds, and beginneth thus, It followeth, &c.

The eleventh telleth us of Insects, and beginneth thus, It remaineth now, &c.

The twelfth treateth of drugs & odoriferous plants, beginning, Thus you, &c.

The thirteenth describeth straunge and forreine trees: beginning with these words, Thus far forth, &c.

The fifteenth comprehendeth all fruitfull trees, thus beginning, There were, &c.

The sixteenth describeth unto us all wild trees, beginning with, Hitherto, &c.

The seventeenth containeth tame trees with hortyards, and beginneth with these words, As touching the nature, &c.

The eighteenth booke treateth of the nature of corne, and all sorts thereof, togither with the profession of husbandmen, and agriculture, beginning after this manner, Now followeth, &c.

The ninteenth discourseth of Flax, Spart, and Gardenage, beginning after this manner, In the former book, &c.

The twentieth sheweth of garden herbs, good to serve both the kitchin for meat, and the Apothecaries shop for medicine, & beginneth thus, Now will we, &c.

The one and twentie treateth of flours & garlands, and beginneth, In Cato, &c.

The two and twentie containeth the chaplets and medecines made of hearbs, with this beginning, Such is the perfection, &c.

The three and twentie sheweth the medicinable vertues of wine, and tame trees growing in hortyards, beginning thus, Thus have we, &c.

The foure and twentie declareth the properties of wild trees serving in physick, beginning, thus, Nature, &c.

The five and twentie treateth of the hearbs in the field comming up of their own accord, and thus beginning, The excellencie, &c.

The six and twentie sheweth of many new and straunge maladies, the medicinable vertues also of certaine hearbs, according to sundrie diseases, beginning thus, The verie face, &c.

The seven and twentie goeth forward to certaine other hearbs and their medecines, and thus beginneth, Certes, &c.

The eight and twentie setteth downe certaine receits of remedies in physicke, drawne from out of man and other bigger creatures, and it beginneth in this manner, Heretofore, &c.

The nine and twentie treateth of the first authours and inventors oof Physicke, also of medecines taken frmo other creatures, & beginneth, The nature, &c.

The thirtith booke speaketh of Magicke, and certaine medecines appropriat to the parts and members of mans bodie, beginning thus, The vanitie, &c.

The one and thirtie containeth the medicinable vertues of fishes & water creatures, with this beginning, Now followeth, &c.

The two and thirtie sheweth other properties of fishes, &c. and beginneth in this manner, Now we are come, &c.

The three and thirtie treateth of gold and silver mines, and hath this beginning, Time it is, &c.

The foure and thirtie speaketh of copper and brasse mines, also of lead, also of excellent brasse-founders and workemen in copper, beginning after this manner, In the next place, &c.

The five and thirtie discourseth of painting, colour, and painters, beginning in this sort, The discourse, &c.

The six and thirtie treateth of marble and stone for building, and hath this beginning, It remaineth, &c..

The seven and thirtie concludeth with pretious stones, and beginneth at these words, To the end that, &c.

the discourse of the World, of cœlestiall impressions and meteors,
as also of them that appeare in the Aire, and upon Earth.
Chap.   Chap.
1. Whether the World bee finite and limited within certaine dimensions or no? whether there be many, or but one?
2. The forme and figure of Heaven and the World.
3. The motion of heaven.
4. Why the world is called Mundus?
5. Of the Elements.
6. Of the seven Planets.
7. Concerning God.
8. The nature of fixed starres and planets: their course and revolution. 63. The nature of the Earth.
9. The nature of the Moone.
10. The eclipse of Sun and Moone: also of the night.
11. The bignesse of starrs.
12. Divers inventions of men and their observations touching the cœlestiall bodies.
13. Of Eclipses.
14. The motion of the Moone.
15. Generall rules or canons touching planets or lights.
16. The reason why the same planets seeme higher or lower at sundrie times.
17. Generall rules concerning the planets or wandring stars.
18. What is the cause that planets change their colours?
19. The course of the Sun: his motion: and from whence proceedeth the inequalitie of daies.
20. Why lightnings be assigned to Iupiter.
21. The distances between the planets.
22. The harmonie of stars and planets.
23. The geometrie and dimensions of the world.
24. Of stars appearing sodainly.
25. Of comets or blasing stars, and other prodigious appearances in the skie: their nature, situation, and sundrie kinds.
26. The opinion of Hipparchus the Philosopher as touching the stars, fire-lights, lamps, pillars or beams of fire, burning darts, gapings of the skie, and other such impresisons, by way of example.
27. Straunge colours appearing in the firmament.
28. Flames and leams seen in the skie.
29. Circles or guirlands shewing above.
30. Of cœlestiall circles & guirlands that continue not, but soone passe. 85. In what parts the seas went backe.
31. Of many Suns.
32. Of many Moons.
33. Of nights as light as day.
34. Of meteors resembling fierie targuets.
35. A straunge and wonderfull apparition in the skie.
36. The extraordinarie shooting and motion of stars.
37. Of the stars named Castor and Pollux.
38. Of the Aire.
39. Of certaine set times and seasons.
40. The power of the Dog-star.
41. The sundrie influences of stars according to the seasons and degrees of the signs.
42. The causes of rainek, wind, and clowds.
43. Of thunder and lightning.
44. Whereupon commeth the redoubling of the voice, called Echo.
45. Of winds againe.
46. Divers considerations observed in the nature of winds. 101. Moreover, as touching the nature of the Moone.
47. Many sorts of winds.
48. Of sodaine blasts and whirle-puffs.
49. Other strange kinds of tempests & storms.
50. In what regions there fall thunderbolts.
51. Divers sorts of lightnings, and wonderous accidents by them occasioned.
52. The observations [of the Tuscanes in old time] as touching lightning.
53. Conjuring for to raise lightning.
54. Generall rules concerning leames and flashes of lightning.
55. What things be exempt and secured from lightning and thunderbolts.

56. Of monstrous and prodigious showres of raine, namely of milke, bloud, flesh, yron, wooll, bricke, and tyle.
57. The rattling of harnesse and armour: the sound also of trumpets heard from heaven.
58. Of stones falling from heaven.
59. Of the Rainbow.
60. Of Haile, Snow, Frost, Mists, and Dew.
61. Of divers formes and shapes represented in clowds.
62. The particular properties of the skie in certaine places.
63. The nature of the Earth.
64. The forme and figure of the earth.
65. Of the Antipodes: and whether there bee any such. Also, as touching the roundesse of the water.
66. How the water resteth upon the earth.
67. Of Seas and rivers navigable.
68. What parts of the earth be habitable.
69. That the earth is in the mids of the world.
70. From whence proceedeth the inequalitie observed in the rising and elevation of the stars. Of the eclipse: where it is, & wherfore.
71. The reason of the day-light upon earth.
72. A discourse thereof according to the Gnomon: also of the first Sun-dyall.
73. In what places and at what times there are no shadows cast.
74. Where the shadows fall opposite and contrarie twice in the yeare.
75. Where the dayes bee longest, and where shortest.
76. Likewise of Dyals and Quadrants.
77. The divers observations and acceptations of the day.
78. The diversities of regions, and the reason thereof.
79. Of Earthquake.
80. Of the chinks and openings of the earth.
81. Signes of earthquake toward.
82. Remedies and helps against earthquakes comming.
83. Straunge and prodigious wonders seene one time in the earth.

84. Miraculous accidents as touching earth-quake.
85. In what parts the seas went backe.
86. Islands appearing new out of the sea.
87. What Islands have thus shewed, and at what times.
88. Into what lands the seas have broken perforce.
89. What Islands have ben joyned to the continent.
90. What lands have perished by water and become all sea.
91. Of lands that have setled and beene swallowed up of themselves.
92. What cittties have beene overflowed and drowned by the sea.
93. Woonderfull straunge things as touching some lands.
94. Of certaine lands that alwaies suffer earthquake.
95. Of Islands that flote continually.
96. In what countries of the world it never raineth: also of many miracles as well of the earth as other elements hudled up pell mell togither.
97. The reason of the Sea-tides, as well ebbing as flowing, and where the sea floweth extraordinarily.
98. Wonderfull things observed in the Sea.
99. The power of the Moone over Sea and land.
100. The power of the Sun: and the reason why the sea is salt.
101. Moreover, as touching the nature of the Moone.
102. Where the sea is deepest.
103. Admirable observations in fresh waters, as well of fountains as rivers.
104. Admirable things as touching fire and water joyntly togither: also of Maltha.
105. Of Naphtha.
106. Of certaine places that burne continually.
107. Wonders of fire alone.
108. The dimension of the earth as well in length as in breadth.
109. The harmonicall circuit & circumference of the world.

In sum, there are in this booke of histories, notable matters, and worthie obesrvations, foure hundred and eighteene in number.

Latine Authors alledged in this booke.

M. Varro, Sulpitius Gallus, Tiberius Cæsar Emperour, Q. Tubero, Tullius Tiro, L. Piso, T. Livius, Cornelius Nepos, Statius, Sebosius, Casius Antipater, Fabianus, Antias, Mutianus, Cecina, (who wrote of the Tuscan learning) Tarquitius, L. Aquala, and Sergius Paulus.

Forreine Authours cited.

Plato, Hipparchus, Timæus, Sosigenes, Petosiris, Necepsus, the Pythagoreans, Posidonius, Anaximander, Epigenes, Gnomonicus, Euclides, Ceranus the Philosopher, Eudoxus, Democritus, Crisodemus, Thrasillus, Serapion, Dicæarchus, Archimedes, Onesicritus, Eratosthenes, Pytheas, Herodotus, Aristotle, Ctesias, Artemidorus the Ephesian, Isidorus Characenus, and Theopompus.
ded the regions, nations, seas, towns, havens, mountains, rivers, with
their measures, and people, either at this day knowne or in times
diverse countries.
Chap.   Chap.
1. Of Europe.
2. The length and breadth of Boetica, a part of Spaine, containing Andalusia, and the realme of Grenado.
3. That hither part of Spaine, called of the Romans Hispania Citerior.
4. The province Narbonensis, wherein is Dauphine, Languedoc, and Provance.
5. Italie, Tiberis, Rome, and Campaine.
6. The Island Corsica.
7. Sardinia.
8. Sicilie.
9. Lipara.
10. Of Locri, and the frontiers of Italie.
11. The second gulfe of Europe.
12. The fourth region of Italie.
13. The fifth region.
14. The sxith region.
15. The eigth region.
16. Of the river Po.
17. Of Italie beyond the Po, counted the eleventh region.
18. Venice, the tenth region.
19. Of Istria.
20. Of the Alps, and the nations there inhabiting.
21. Illyricum.
22. Liburnia.
23. Macedonie.
24. Noricum.
25. Pannonie and Dalmatia.
26. Mœsia.

ned the woonderfull shapes of men in
diverse countries.
1. The strange formes of many nations.
2. Of the Scythians, and other people of diverse countries.
3. Of monstrous and prodigious births.
4. The transmutation of one sex into another. Also of twins.
5. Of the generation of man. The time of a womans childbearing, from seven moneths to eleven, proved by notable examples out of hystories.
6. Of conceptions, and children within the wombe. The signes how to know whether a woman goe with a sonne or a daughter before she is delivered.
7. Of the conception and generation of man.
8. Of Agrippæ, i. those who are borne with the feet forward.
9. Of straunge births, namely, by means of incision, when children are cut out of their mothers wombe.
10. Of Vopisci, i. such as being twins were born alive, notwithstanding the one of them was dead before.
11. Hystories of many children borne at one burden.
12. Examples of those that were like one to another.
13. The cause and manner of generation.
14. More of the same matter and argument.
15. Of womens monthly tearmes.
16. The manner of sundrie births.
17. The proportion of the parts of mans body and notable things therein observed.
18. Examples of extraordinarie shapes.
19. Straunge natures of men.
20. Of bodily strength and swiftnesse.
21. Of excellent sight.
22. Who excelled in hearing.
23. Examples of patience.
24. Who were singular for good memorie.
25. The praise of C. Iulius Cæsar.
26. The commendation of Pompey the Great.
27. The praise of Cato, the first of that name.
28. Of valour and fortitude.
29. Of notable wits, or the praises of some of their singular wit.
30. Of Plato, Ennius, Virgill, M. Varro, and M. Cicero.
31. Of such as carried a majestie in their behaviour.
32. Of men of great authoritie and reputation.
33. Of certaine divine and heavenly persons.
34. Of Scipio Nasica.
35. Of Chastitie.
36. Of Pietie, and naturall kindnesse.
37. Of excellent men in diverse sciences, and namely, in Astrologie, Grammer, and Geometrie, &c.
38. Item, Rare peeces of worke made by sundry artificers.
39. Of servants and slaves.
40. The excellencie of diverse nations.
41. Of perfect contentment and felicitie.
42. Examples of the variety and mutabilitie of fortune.
43. Of those that were twice outlawed and banished: of L. Sylla and Q. Metellus.
44. Of another Metellus.
45. Of the Emperour Augustus.
46. Of men deemed most happie above all others by the Oracles of the gods.
47. Who was cannonized a god whiles hee lived upon the earth.
48. Of those that lived longer than others.
49. Of diverse nativities of men.
50. Many examples of straunge accidents in maladies.
51. Of the signes of death.
52. Of those that revived when they were caried forth to be buried.
53. Of suddaine death.
54. Of sepulchres and burials.
55. Of the soule: of ghosts and spirits.
56. The first inventors of many things.
57. Wherein all nations first agreed.
58. Of antique letters.
59. The beginning of Barbars first at Rome.
60. The first devisers of Dials and Clockes.

In summe, there are in this booke of stories straunge accidents and matters memorable 747.

Latine Authors.

Verrius Flaccus, Cn. Gellius, Licinius Mutianus, Mutius, Maßurius, Agrippina wife of Claudius, M. Cicero, Asinius Pollio, Meßala, Rufus, Cornelius Nepos, Virgil, Livie, Cordus, Melissus, Sebosus, Cornelius Celsus, Maximus Valerius, Trogus, Nigidius Figulus, Pomponius Atticus, Pedianus Asconius, Sabinus, Cato Censorius, Fabius Vestalis.

Forraine Writers.

Herodotus, Aristeas, Beto, Isigonus, Crates, Agatharcides, Calliphanes, Aristotle, Nymphodorus, Apollonides, Philarchus, Damon, Megasthenes, Ctesias, Tauron, Eudoxus, Onesicratus, Clitarchus, Duris, Artemidorus, Hippocrates the Physician, Asclepiander the Physician, Hesiodus, Anacreon, Theopompus, Hellanicus, Damasthes, Ephorus, Epigenes, Berosus, Pessiris, Necepsus, Alexander Polyhistor, Xenophon, Callimachus, Democritus, Duillius, Polyhistor the Historian, Strabo who wrate against the Propositions and Theoremes of Ephorus, Heraclides Ponticus, Asclepiades who wrote Tragodamena, Philostephanus, Hegesias, Archimachus, Thucydides, Mnesigiton, Xenagoras, Metrodorus Scepsius, Anticlides, and Critodemus.
In this booke are described 26 Islands within the Adriaticke and Ionian seas: their principall citties, towns and nations. Also the chiefe and famous rivers: the highest hills: speciall Islands besides: towns and countries that be perished. In sum, here are comprised notable things, histories, matters memorable, and observations to the number of 326.

Latine Authors brought in for testimonie.

Turannius Graccula, Cor. Nepos, T. Livius, Cato Censorius, M. Agrippa, M. Varro, Divus Augustus the Emperour, Varro Attacinus, Antias, Hyginus, Lyetus, Mela Pomponius, Curio the father, Cœlius Aruntius, Sebosus, Licinius Mutianus, Fabricius Thuscus, L. Atteius Capito, Verrius Flaccus, L. Piso, C. Ælianus, and Valerianus.

Forreine Authours.

Artemidorus, Alexander Polyhistor, Thucydides, Theophrastus, Isidorus, Theopompus, Metrodorus Scepsius, Callicrates, Xenophon, Lampsacenus, diodorus Syracusanus, Nymphodorus, Calliphanes, and Timagenes.

tained the natures of land beasts
that goe on foot.
1. Of land creatures: The good and commendable parts in Elephants: their capacitie and understanding.
2. When Elephants were first yoked and put to draw.
3. The docilitie of Elephants, and their aptnesse to learne.
4. The clemency of Elephants: that they know their owne daungers. Also of the felnesse of the Tigre.
5. The perceivance and memory of Elephants.
6. When Elephants were first seene in Italie.
7. The combats performed by Elephants.
8. The manner of taking Elephants.
9. The manner how Elephants be tamed.
10. How long an Elephant goeth with young, and of their nature.
11. The countries where Elephants breed: the discord and warre betweene Elephants and Dragons.
12. The industrie & subtill wit of Dragons and Elephants.
13. Of Dragons.
14. Serpents of prodigious bignesse: of Serpents named Boæ.
15. Of beasts engendred in Scythia, and the North countries.
16. Of Lions.
17. Of Panthers.
18. The nature of the Tygre: of Camels, and the Pard-Cammell: when it was first seene at Rome.
19. Of the Stag-Wolfe named Chaus: and the Cephus.
20. Of Rhinoceros.
21. Of Onces, Marmosets called Sphinges, of the Crocutes, of common Marmosets, of Indian Boeufes, of Leucrocutes, of Eale, of the Æthyopian Bulls, of the beast Mantichora, of the Licorne or Unicorne, of the Catoblepa, and the Basiliske.
22. Of Wolves.
23. Of Serpents.
24. Of the rat of India called Ichneumon.
25. Of the Crocodile, the Skinke, and the River-horse.
26. Who shewed first at Rome the Water-horse and the Crocodiles. Diverse reasons in Physicke found out by dumbe creatures.
27. Of beasts and other such creatures which have taught us certaine hearbes, to wit, the red Deere, Lizards, Swallowes, Tortoises, the Weasell, the Stork, the Bore, the Snake, the Panther, the Elephant, Beares, Stocke-Doves, House-Doves, Cranes, and Ravens.
28. Prognostications of things to come, taken from beasts.
29. What cities and nations have been destroied by small creatures.
30. Of the Hiæna, the Crocuta and Mantichora: of Bievers and Otters.
31. Of Frogs, Sea or sea-Calves, and Stellions.
32. Of Deere both red and fallow.
33. Of the Tragelaphis: of the Chamæleon, and other beasts that chaunge colour.
34. Of the Tarand, the Lycaon, and the Wolfe called Thoes.
35. Of the Porc-espines.
36. Of Beares, and how they bring forth their whelpes.
37. The rats and mice of Pontus and the Alps: also of Hedgehogs.
38. Of the Leontophones, the Onces, Graies, Badgers, and Squirrels.
39. Of Vipers, Snailes in shels, and Lizards.
40. Of Dogs.
41. Against the biting of a mad dog.
42. The nature of Horses.
43. Of Asses.
44. Of Mules.
45. Of Kine, Buls, and Oxen.
46. Of the Boeufe named Apis.
47. The nature of sheepe, their breeding and generation.
48. Sundrie kinds of wooll and cloths.
49. Of sheepe called Musmones.
50. Of Goats and their generation.
51. Of Swine and their nature.
52. Of Parkes and Warrens for beasts.
53. Of beasts halfe tame and wild.
54. Of Apes and Monkies.
55. Of Hares and Connies.
56. Of beasts halfe savage.
57. Of Rats and mice: of Dormice.
58. Of beasts that live not in some places.
59. Of beasts hurtfull to straungers.

In summe, there are in this Booke principall matters, stories, and observations worth the remembrance 788.

Latine Authors alleadged.

Mutianus, Procilius, Verrius Flaccus, L. Piso, Cornelius Valerianus, Cato Censorius, Fenestella, Trogus, Actius, Columella, Virgil, Varro, Lu. Metellus Scipio, Cornelius Celsus, Nigidius, Trebius Niger, Pomponius Mela, Manlius Sura.

Forraine writers.

King Iuba, Polybius, Onesicritus, Isidorus, Antipater, Aristotle, Demetrius the naturall Philosopher, Democritus, Theophrastus, Euanthes, Agrippa who wrote of the Olympionicæ, Hiero, king Attalus, king Philometer, Ctesias, Philistius, Amphilochus the Athenian, Anaxipolis the Thasian, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes the Milesian, Antigonus the Cymæan, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonicus of Pergamus, Aristander of Athens, Bacchus the Milesian, Bion of Soli, Chæreas the Athenian, Diodorus of Pyreæum, Dio the Colophonian, Epigenes of Rhodes,, Evagon of Thassus, Euphranius the Athenian, Hegesias of Maronea, Menander of Pyreæum, Menander also of Heracles, Menecrates the Poet, Androcion who wrote of Agriculture or Husbandrie, Aeschrion who likewise wrote of that argument, Dionysius who translated Mago, Diophanes who collected an Epitome or Breviarie out of Dionysius, king Archelaus, and Nicander.

ned the stories and natures of Fishes
and water-creatures.
1. The nature of water-creatures.
2. The reason why the creatures of the sea are of all others biggest.
3. The monstrous beasts of the Indian sea.
4. The greatest fishes and beasts in everie part of the Ocean.
5. Of Tritones, Nereides, and sea Elephants: their shapes and formes.
6. Of great Whales, called Balænæ and Orcæ.
7. Whether fishes doe take and deliver their breath? whether they sleepe or no?
8. Of Dolphins and their wonderfull properties.
9. Of the Tursiones.
10. Of the sea Tortoises, and how they bee taken.
11. Who first devised to slive the Tortoise shels into leaves.
12. The skins and shels of the sea creatures: the division of them into their severall kinds.
13. Of the Seale or sea Calfe.
14. Of fishes smooth and without haire: how they spawn and breed: and how many sorts there be of them.
15. The names and natures of many fishes.
16. The presages by fishes, and their varietie.
17. Of the Mullet & other fishes. That the same fishes are not in request in all places.
18. Of the Barble, the sea Raven Caracinus: of Stockfish and Salmon.
19. Of the Exoecutus, Calamaries, Lampreies, &c.
20. The division of fishes by the shapes of their bodies.
21. Of Eeles.
22. The manner of taking them in the Lake Benacus.
23. The nature of the Lamprey.
24. Of flat and broad fishes.
25. Of the stay-ship Echeneis, and his wonderfull nature.
26. The changeable nature of fishes.
27. Of the fish called the Lanterne, and the sea Dragon.
28. Of fishes wanting bloud.
29. Of the Pourcuttle, the Cuttle fish,the Calamarie, and the fish called the Sayler or Marriner.
30. The fish Ozæna, and Nauplius: also of Lobstars.
31. Of Crabs, sea Porkespines: and of the greater sort named Echinometræ.
32. Of Wilkes, cockles, and shell fishes.
33. Of Scallops, Porcellanes, of the shell fish Murex, and other such.
34. The riches and treasures of the sea.
35. Of pearles, how they be engendered, and where: also how they be found.
36. The nature of the Purple fish and the Burrets or Murices.
37. How many kinds there be of purple fishes.
38. How the purple fishes be taken.
39. When purple was first worne in the citie of Rome.
40. The price of purple cloths at Rome.
41. The dying of the Amethyst colour, of the Skarlet in graine, and the light Skarlet Hysginus.
42. Of the fish called the Nacre, and his guide or keeper Pinnoteres: also the intelligence of fishes and water creatures.
43. Of Scolopendres, sea-Foxes, and the fishes Glani.
44. Of the fish called the sea Ram.
45. Of those things which have a third nature, beeing neither living creatures, ne yet plants, to wit, of sea Nettils and Spunges.
46. Of Houndfishes or sea dogs.
47. Of sea fishes that have stonie shels: of those that have no sence at all: of other nastie and filthie creatures.
48. Of sea fishes venomous.
49. The diseases incident to fish.
50. The admirable generation of fishes.
51. Item, Another discourse of their generation: and what fishes they bee which doe lay egges.
52. The matrices or wombes of fishes.
53. What fishes live longest.
54. Of Oyster pits, and who did first devise them.
55. Who first invented stewes and ponds to feed Lampreies in.
56. The stewes and ponds for other shell fishes, and who brought them up first to be used.
57. Of fishes that haunt the land.
58. The rats of Nilus.
59. Of the fish called Anthias, and how hee is taken.
60. Of the sea starres.
61. Of the fishes Dactyli, and their admirable properties.
62. What fishes do entertaine amitie one with another, and which be ever at warre.

In summe, this Booke containeth stories, notable things, and observations, to the number of 650, collected

Out of Latine Authors.

Turanius Graccula, Trogus, Mecænas, Alsius Flavus, Cornelius Nepos, Laberius, the wrtier of merry Epigrams, Fabianus, Fenestella, Mutianus, Aelius Stilo, Statius Sebosus, Melissus, Seneca, Cicero, Macer Aemylius, Messala Corvinus, Trebius Niger, and Nigridius.

Out of Forreine Writers.

Aristotle, king Archelaus, Callimachus, Democritus, Theophrastus, Thrasyllus, Hegesidemus of Cythnos, and Alexander Polyhistor.

ned the natures and stories of Foules and
flying creatures.
1. The nature of Foules.
2. Of the Phoenix.
3. Of Ægles
4. When the Romane legions used the Æagle standerd, and other ensignes. Also with what creatuers Ægles maintaine fight.
5. A strange and woonderfull case as touching an Ægle.
6. Of the Vultures or Geires.
7. Of the foule Sangualis.
8. Of Faulcons and Hawkes.
9. Of the Cuckow, which is killed by birds of her owne kind.
10. Of Kites or Puttockes.
11. A division of birds into generall kinds.
12. Of unluckie and ominous birds, the Crow, the Raven, and the Like-owle.
13. Of the foule that carieth fire in her mouth.
14. Of the Clivina.
15. Of many birds unknowne.
16. Of foules tthat flie by night.
17. Of Howlets.
18. Of the Wood-pecker.
19. Of birds which have clawes and crooked tallons.
20. Of Peacockes: and who killed them first for to be served at the table.
21. Of Cockes: how they be cut: of a dunghill cocke that spake.
22. Of Geese: who first devised to make a daintie dish of the Goose liver: the gravie or fat of Geese, called Comagenum.
23. Of Cranes, Storkes, Swans, straunge fouls of outlandish countries, of Quailes, and the bird Glotis.
24. Of Swallowes and Martins, of Blackbirds, Thrushes, and Merles, of Sterlings, Turtle-doves, and Quoists or Ringdoves.
25. Of birds that tarie with us all the year long, of birds that be for halfe a yeare only, and others that remain but three months.
26. Marvellous stories of birds.
27. Of the birds called Seleucides.
28. Of the foule Ibis.
29. What birds will not abide in all places: which they be that chaunge both hew and voice: also of Nightingales.
30. Of Merles and Ousels.
31. The time wherein birds breed, lay, and sit.
32. Of the birds Halciones, the navigable daies that they doe shew: of the Sea-guls and Cormorants.
33. The industrie and subtiltie of birds in building their neasts: of the ordinarie Swallow, the river Swallow Argatilis: the birds Cinnamologi that steale Cinnamon, and of Partridges.
34. Of House doves.
35. Of Stock-doves.
36. Of Sparrowes.
37. Of the Kestrell or Stannell.
38. Of the flight and gate of birds.
39. A certaine footlesse Martinets, called Apodes.
40. Of certain Gulss that milke and suck Goats udders, and be named Caprimulgi: also of Pelicanes named Plateæ.
41. The perceivance and naturall wit of birds.
42. Of the Linnet, Popinjay, or Parret, & such birds that will learne to speake.
43. The intelligence and understanding that Ravens have.
44. Of Diomedes his birds.
45. Of dull witted birds that will be taught nothing.
46. The manner how birds drinke.
47. Of foules called Himantipodes, and Onacrotali, and of other such strange birds.
48. The names of many birds & their natures.
49. Of straunge and new birds, such also as bee holden for fabulous.
50. Who devised first to cram Hens & Capons; of bartons, mewes, and coupes to keep and feed foules, and the first inventour thereof.
51. Of Æsopes platter.
52. The generation of birds, and what fourfooted beasts do lay egs as well as birds.
53. The knitting of egges within the bodie, the laying, couving and sitting of them, the maner and time of birds engendring.
54. The accidents that befall to broodie birds whiles they sit, and the remedies thereof.
55. Auguries and presages by egges.
56. What Hens be of the best kind.
57. The diseases incident to Hens, & the cure.
58. The maner how birds conceive: what number of egs they lay, & how many they hatch.
59. Of Peacockes and Geese.
60. Of Herons and Bitters. The way to preserve and keepe egges.
61. The only bird that bringeth forth her yong alive, & feedeth the same at the pap with milk.
62. The conception of the Viper, and how she is delivered of her young, also what land creatues lay egges.
63. The ordinary generation of land creatures.
64. The diversitie of living creatures in the maner of their engendering.
65. The yong ones that mice and rats do breed.
66. Whether of the marrow of a mans backe bone a serpent will engender.
67. Of the Salamander.
68. What things be engendered of those that were never engendered, and contrariwise, what creatures they be, which being engendered themselves, breed not.
69. The sences of living creatures.
70. That fishes doe both heare and smell.
71. That the sence of feeling is common to all living creatures.
72. What creatures live of poysons, and eat earth.
73. Of the meat and drinke of diverse creatures.
74. What creatures evermore disagree: and which they bee that agree well together.
75. Of the sleepe of living creatures.

This Booke hath in it of notable things, hystories and observations 904, gathered out of

Latine Authors and records.

Manilius, Cornelius Valerianus, the publicke records and registers, Umbricius surnamed Melior, Massurius Sabinus, Antistius Labeo, Trogus Cremutius, M. Varro, Macer Aemylius, Melißus, Mutianus, Nepos, Fabius Pictor, T. Lucretius, Cornelius Celsus, Horatius, Desulo, Hysginus, Sarsennæ, both father and sonne, Nigidius, and Manlius Sura.

Forraine Writers.

Homer, Phoemonoes, Philemon, Boethius who wrote a treatise called Ornithagonia, Hylas who made a discourse of Auguries, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Callimachus, Aeschylus, Hiero, Philometor, Archytas, Amphilochus the Athenian, Anaxipolis the Thasian, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes the Milesian, Antigonus the Cymæan, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonius of Pergamus, Aristander the Athenian, Bacchius the Milesian, Bion of Soli, Chæreas the Athenian, Diodorus of Pyræne, Dion the Colophonian, Democritus, Diophanes of Nicæa, Epigenes of Rhodes, Evagoras of Thasos, Euphonius of Athens, king Iuba, Androcion who wrote of Husbandrie, and Aeschrion likewise who wrote thereof, Dionysius who translated Mago, and Diophanes who reduced his worke into an Epitome, Nicander, Onesicritus, Philarchus, and Hesiodus.

tained the stories and natures of small creatures
and such as creep on the ground.
1. Of Insects in generall.
2. The naturall industrie of those Insects.
3. Whether Insects do breath, & whether they have bloud or no?
4. The matter & substance of the Insects bodie.
5. Of Bees.
6. The government and order which Bees keep by instinct of nature.
7. Divers operations of the Bees, & the tearms thereto belonging.
8. Of what flowers Bees do make their cellars, combes, and other workes.
9. What persons tooke a great love to Bees, and delighted to nourish them.
10. The manner of Bees when they be at their businesse.
11. Of Drones.
12. The nature of Honey.
13. Which is the best Honey.
14. The severall and particular kinds of Honey in diverse places.
15. The markes and tokens of good Honey.
16. Of a third kind of Honey, and how a man should know good bees.
17. The regiment and pollicie that Bees observe.
18. Diverse sorts of Bees, and what things bee hurtfull to Bees.
19. The diseases incident to Bees.
20. How to keepe the cast of Bees when they swarme, that they flie not away, also how to recover Bees, in case their breed and race be lost.
21. Of Wespes and Hornets.
22. Of silk flies, their wores and Iackes called Bombylis and Necydalus, and who first devised silke cloth.
23. Of the silkeworme in the Island Coos.
24. Of the Spiders and their generation.
25. Of Scorpions.
26. Of Stellions and Grashoppers.
27. In what countries there bee no Grashoppers, and where they sing not.
28. The wings of Insects, of Beetles and their kinds.
29. Of Locusts.
30. Of Ants or Pismires in Italie.
31. Of Indian Ants or Emmets.
32. The diverse sorts of Insects.
33. Of certaine creatures breeding of wood, and living of wood.
34. Of a certain creature that hath no passage to void excrements.
35. Of Moths and Gnats.
36. Of flies living in the fire, named Pyrales or Pyraustæ.
37. A discourse Anatomicall of all parts and members of the bodie.
38. Of Bloud. Also in what creatures bloud will soonest clutter and congeale, and whose will not at all. What creatures have the grossest and heaviest bloud, and which the finest and thinnest: and lastly, who have no bloud at all.
39. Whether the soveraignetie and excellencie of sence consisteth in bloud. Of the skin and hide, of the haires and dugs of living creatures.
40. What creatures have notable dugs or teats above the rest.
41. Of Milke, and what milke will make no cheese.
42. Divers kinds of Cheese.
43. How the lims and members of mans body differeth from other creatures.
44. The resemblance that Apes have to us.
45. Of Nailes.
46. Of Houfes.
47. Of birds feet and their clawes.
48. Of Insects feet, from two to an hundred.
49. Of Dwarfes in each kind, and the genitall parts.
50. Of Tailes.
51. Of Voices.
52. Of superfluous members of the bodie. The sayings of Aristotle as touching long life.
53. Of the wind & breath that living creatures take. What things if they bee tasted, bee venomous and deadly. The food of man, as well for meat as drinke. What causes they be that hinder digestion.
54. How to increase or diminish the corpulencie of the bodie, and what things with tast onely, will allay hunger and quench thirst.

In summe, this Booke containeth notable things, stories, and observations 2270.

Latine Authors cited.

M. Varro, Hyginus, Scropha, Sarcena, Celsus Cornelius, Aemilius Macer, Virgil, Columella, Iulius Aquila, who wrate of the Tuscane discipline, Tarquilius, who likewise wrote of the same, and Umbritius that travelled in that argument, Cato Censorius, Domitius Calvinus, Trogus, Melißus, Favonius, Fabianus, Mutianu, Nigidius, Manilius, and Opius.

Forraine Writers.

Aristotle, Democritus, Neoptolemus, who wrote * Meliturgia, Aristomachus, who likewise made a Treatise of the same, and Philistus also that did the like, Nicander, Menecrates, Dionyssius that translated Mago, Empedocles, Callimachus, king Attalus, Apollodorus who wrote of venomous beasts, Hippocrates, Eriphilus, Erasistratus, Asclepius, Themiso, Posidonius the Stoicke, the two Menanders, one of Priene and the other of Heraclea, Euphronius of Athenss, Theophrastus, Hesiodus, and king Philometor.

ned discourses of Trees.
1. The honor done to trees, of the Plane trees: when they were first brought into Italy, and of their nature.
2. Of the dwarfe Planes growing low, and who was the first that cut and shred trees into arbours.
3. Of straunge trees, and principally of the Citron tree in Assyria.
4. Of India trees, and when Ebene was first seen at Rome.
5. Of a certaine Thorne and Figgtree of India.
6. Of a tree named Pala: also of other Indian trees that are namelesse, and of those that beare wooll and cotton.
7. Of Pepper trees and Clove trees, and manie others.
8. Of Macir or Sugar, and the trees growing in the region of Ariana.
9. Of Bdellium, and of trees along the Persian gulfe.
10. Of trees growing in the Island within the Persian gulfe, and those that beare Cotton.
11. Of Gossampine trees, and those which serve to make cloth, and wherein consisteth the fruit of certaine trees.
12. Of Costus, Spikenard, & divers sorts of Nard.
13. Of Asarabacca, Amomum, Amonius and Caramomum.
14. Of Frankincense, & trees that yeeld Incense.
15. Of Myrrhe and Myrrhe trees.
16. Of sundrie sorts of Myrrhe, the nature therof and the price.
17. Of Masticke, Ladanum, and Bruta, of Enhæmum, Strobus, and Styrax.
18. Of the felicitie and happinesse of Arabia.
19. Of Cinnamon, and the wood thereof called Xylocinnamum, and of Casia.
20. Of Isocinnamon or Canel, of Caucamum and Tarum.
21. Of Serichatum, Gabalium, and Ben, otherwise called Myrobalanus.
22. Of Dates called Phoenicobalanus, & sweet Calamus.
23. Of Ammoniacum, and the sweet mosse called Sphagdus or Usnea.
24. Of Cyprus, Aspalathus and Marum.
25. Of Baulme, as well the liquor called Opobalsamum, as the wood Xylobalsamum, of Storax and Galbanum.
26. Of Panace, Spondylium, and Malobathurm or Folium.

In summe, this booke containeth in it of notable matters, hystories, and observations, 974.

Latine Authours alleadged.

M. Varro, Mutianus, Virgil, Fabian, Sebosus, Pomponius Mela, Flavius Proculus, Trogus, Hyginus, Claudius Cæsar, Cornelius Nepos, Sextius Niger who wrate in Greeke of Physicke, Cassius Hemina, L. Piso, Tuditanus, and Antias.

Forreine Writers.

Theophrastus, Herodotus, Callisthenes, Isidorus, Clitarchus, Anaximenes, Dioris, Nearchus, Onesicratus, Polycritus, Olympiodorus, Diognetus, Nicobulus, Anticlides, Charax of Mitylene, Menechmus Dorotheus, Xenias Dorotheus, Xenias the Athenia, Lycus, Antæus, Ephippus, Chareas, Democles, Ptolemaus, Lagus, Marsyas the Macedonian, Zoilus likewise of Macedonie, Democritus, Amphilochus, Aristomachus, Alexander Polyhistor, king Iuba, Apollodorus the author of the treatise concerning sweet odours, Heraclides the Physician, Dionysius, Democlides, Euphron, Obsenides, Diagoras, Iolla (all six Physicians), Heraclides of Tarentum, Xenocritus of Ephesus, and Eratosthenes.


* i. As touching the worke of Bees.
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